Tu-Anh Tran1*, Anne Filleron1, Mathieu Simonin2 and Pierre Corbeau3

1Department of Pediatrics, Nîmes University Hospital, INSERM U 1183, Montpellier-Nîmes University, Nîmes, France
2Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Pediatric Oncology, 114 Rue Paul Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France
3Department of Immunology, Nîmes university hospital, Montpellier-Nîmes university, Nîmes, France

 Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS), is a rare condition characterized by a recurrent stereotypical triad: hypovolemic shock, generalized edema, paradoxical hemoconcentration and hypoalbuminemia. It is caused by massive fluid extravasation into the interstitial space. Mortality may result from hemodynamic failure in the acute phase or cardiac failure due to reflex circulatory overload in the sub-acute phase. To date, twenty-one pediatric cases were reported in the literature. Sex ratio (M/F) was 0.32 with a median age at disease onset of 5.7 years and at diagnosis of 6 years. The disease was recurrent in 81% of patients with a median of three attacks. Severe complications were possible involving central nervous system (n=2) or rhabdomyolysis, with a compartment syndrome needing fasciotomy (n=5). The median time to clinical recovery was five days. Although the clinical manifestations of pediatric and adult SCLS were similar; in the opposite of adult SCLS, none of the children showed evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and three pediatric cases had a family history of SCLS. Seventy five percent of the patients were treated with prophylactic treatment (mainly immunoglobulins, theophylline plus verapamil). Several inflammatory cytokines were suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of SCLS, especially interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor -alpha.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1070 View / Download Pdf