Eiji Ohashi*

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan

DNA damage response (DDR) pathways play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome integrity, and defects in DDR proteins lead to genome instability and eventually cancer. Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) is a ring-shaped heterotrimeric complex involved in multiple DDR pathways, especially the DNA damage checkpoint. Rad9 has an intrinsically disordered C-terminal region, called C-tail. The C-tail projects from the ring and has multiple phosphorylation sites and several protein-protein interaction sites, some of which are crucial for checkpoint activation. In addition, it was recently shown that C-tail binds to the 9-1-1 ring structure and is released from it upon binding to TopBP1, an activator of the DNA damage checkpoint. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of the Rad9 C-tail and discusses DNA damage checkpoint activation and the regulation of several DNA repair pathways via this region.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1110 View / Download Pdf

Ellis J Powell1, Joan E Cunnick2, and Christopher K Tuggle1*

1Genetics and Genomics Graduate Program, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2Interdepartmental Microbiology Program, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA

Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency (SCID) is defined as the lack or impairment of an adaptive immune system. Although SCID phenotypes are characteristically absent of T and B cells, many such SCID cellular profiles include the presence of NK cells. In human SCID patients, functional NK cells may impact the engraftment success of life saving procedures such as bone marrow transplantation. However, in animal models, a T cell-, B cell-, NK cell+ environment provides a valuable tool for asking specific questions about the extent of the innate immune system function as well as emerging NK targeted therapies against cancer. Physiologically and immunologically the pig is more similar to the human than common rodent research animals. This review discusses why the T- B- NK+ SCID pig may offer a more relevant model for development of human SCID patient therapies as well as provide an opportunity for systematic exploration of the role of NK cells in artiodactyl immunity.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1103 View / Download Pdf

Yuji Saitoh1,2 and Yoshitaka Nagai1,3*

1Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan
2Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8551, Japan
3Department of Neurotherapeutics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1106 View / Download Pdf

Yasuhiro Nakagami1,2

1Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan

2Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd., 6-4-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan

 Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer, often in combination with other approaches such as surgery and chemotherapy. High doses of radiation basically kill cancer cells; however, one of the common adverse effects of this treatment is acute radiation dermatitis. This leads to itching, pain, and diminished appearance, and can also interrupt the therapy itself. Reactive oxygen species are generated in the injured tissues, especially in keratinocytes, and cause inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage. Current drugs such as topical steroid creams and dressings are not sufficient to alleviate these detrimental events. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that binds to antioxidant response elements located in the promoter region of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes. Synthesized chemical Nrf2 activators have been shown to be effective in many pathological models, including acute radiation dermatitis models. Preclinical data identified RTA 402 as one of the most promising compounds for reducing or preventing acute radiation dermatitis, and this was recently tested in patients with breast cancer. This review discusses current links between Nrf2 activators and acute radiation dermatitis, and explores the possibility that symptoms can be alleviated by upregulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1109 View / Download Pdf

Yasuhiro Nakagami1,2

1Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan

2Asubio Pharma Co., Ltd., 6-4-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan

 Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer, often in combination with other approaches such as surgery and chemotherapy. High doses of radiation basically kill cancer cells; however, one of the common adverse effects of this treatment is acute radiation dermatitis. This leads to itching, pain, and diminished appearance, and can also interrupt the therapy itself. Reactive oxygen species are generated in the injured tissues, especially in keratinocytes, and cause inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage. Current drugs such as topical steroid creams and dressings are not sufficient to alleviate these detrimental events. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that binds to antioxidant response elements located in the promoter region of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes. Synthesized chemical Nrf2 activators have been shown to be effective in many pathological models, including acute radiation dermatitis models. Preclinical data identified RTA 402 as one of the most promising compounds for reducing or preventing acute radiation dermatitis, and this was recently tested in patients with breast cancer. This review discusses current links between Nrf2 activators and acute radiation dermatitis, and explores the possibility that symptoms can be alleviated by upregulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1109 View / Download Pdf

Takuhiro Sonoyama1, Masakatsu Sone2*

1Medical Innovation Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan

2Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan

 Primary aldosteronism (PA), one of the most frequent causes of secondary hypertension, is mainly composed of two major subtypes: aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA). In APA, ACTH plays a dominant role in the regulation of circulating aldosterone level, while in physiological condition and BHA angiotensin II has a stronger effect. This pronounced regulation of aldosterone by ACTH in APA causes a differential response of aldosterone to either ACTH stimulation or ACTH suppression in APA from that in physiological condition and BHA, and therefore, ACTH stimulation test can be informative in differentiating APA among patients with PA and essential hypertension. Histologic studies have suggested a possibility that the origin of APA especially consisting of clear, lipid rich cells could be zona fasticulata, rather than zona glomerulosa. Recent studies have been focusing on molecular classification among APA, which could lead to a better understanding of ACTH responsiveness in APA.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/3.1101 View / Download Pdf

Caitlin Doherty1, Francyne Kubaski2,3, Shunji Tomatsu3,4,5*, and Thomas H. Shaffer3,6*

1University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
3Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA
4Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan
5Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
6Center for Pediatric Lung Research, Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA

 Morquio patients, in many cases, present with severe tracheal narrowing and restrictive lung problems making them susceptible to high mortality arising from sleep apnea and related complications. Tracheal obstruction with growth imbalance, short neck, adeno and tonsillar hypertrophy, large mandible, and/or pectus carinatum also contributes to the challenges in managing the airway with intubation and extubation due to factors intrinsic to Morquio syndrome. Taken together, these issues lead to serious respiratory distress and life-threatening complications during anesthetic procedures. Furthermore, patients with Morquio syndrome frequently cannot perform standard pulmonary function tests as a result of their distinctive skeletal dysplasia and chest deformity, thus making diagnosis of incipient pulmonary disease difficult. In many cases, conventional spirometry is too difficult for patients to complete, deriving from issues with cooperation or clinical circumstance. Therefore, it is an unmet challenge to assess pulmonary insufficiency with standard pulmonary function test (PFT) with minimal effort. Non-invasive PFT such as respiratory inductance plethysmography, impulse oscillometry system, and pneumotachography were described in Morquio patients as compared with spirometry. Findings from our previous study indicate that these non-invasive tests are a reliable approach to evaluate lung function in a larger range of patients, and provide valuable clinical information otherwise unobtainable from invasive tests. In conclusion, the present study describes the utility of non-invasive (PFT) to accommodate a broad range of patients including intolerance to effort-dependent PFT.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1097 View / Download Pdf

Mitsunori Higuchi1*, Tetsutaro Nemoto2, Hajime Matsuida2, Ikuro Oshibe2, Nobutoshi Soeta2, Toshiyuki Takeshige2, Takuro Saito2, and Hiroyuki Suzuki3

1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aizu Medical Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 969-3492, Japan
2Department of Surgery, Aizu Medical Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 969-3492, Japan
3Department of Chest Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan

 Immune checkpoint inhibitors play crucial roles in the treatment of advanced and recurrent non-small cell lung caner (NSCLC). As yet, there are no biomarkers to help select patients that would benefit from this treatment. Currently, evaluation of the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors is performed using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or immune-related response criteria on the basis of computed tomography (CT) scans, which are based only on anatomical changes and exclude a metabolic assessment. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can add metabolic information, but is also subject to false-positive and false-negative findings in the presence of inflammation. In this review, we briefly discuss the optimal use of FDG-PET for the evaluation of checkpoint-based cancer immunotherapy and also discuss the relationship between immune checkpoint inhibitors and FDG-PET in NSCLC. We also introduce ongoing clinical studies and pre-clinical experiments involved in the development of diagnostic imaging and treatments for NSCLC.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1098 View / Download Pdf

Aintzane Urbizu1, Tahir N. Khan2, Allison E. Ashley-Koch1*

1Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
2Duke Center for Human Disease Modeling, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

 Chiari malformation type 1 is a heterogeneous disease characterized by cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum. Symptomatology is diverse, and diagnosis and treatment are controversial. Some evidence suggests the presence of a genetic component to the disease. However, the specific genetic factors involved remain relatively unknown. Previous reviews have broadly addressed different aspects (clinical manifestations, anatomical trails, treatment) of CM-1 by itself or compared it with other types of Chiari malformation. In this mini-review, we focus our attention on the heterogeneity of this disease and its impact on the study of the genetic etiology of classic CM-1. Patient stratification strategies and endophenotypes definitions are offered to help overcome the heterogeneity.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1082 View / Download Pdf

Alfred Said Sife1, Tumaini Jonas Wapalila2 and Maulilio John Kipanyula3*

1Sokoine National Agricultural Library (SNAL), Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3022 Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania
2Morogoro Regional Commisioner's Office, Boma Road, P.O. Box 650 Boma Road, Morogoro, Tanzania
3Department of Anatomy Histology and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.Box 3016, Morogoro – Tanzania

 The CD4 T-cell count is an important laboratory indicator of the immune status in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is used in decision making to determine when antiretroviral therapy and a need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections should be initiated. This study was carried out to assess the contribution of donor funded projects to the wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS as measured by improvement of CD4 count. A total of 120 respondents were randomly selected from Morogoro urban and Kilombero district, Tanzania. Based on panel data, individual observations were made four times across time and there were a total of 480 observations. The home based care TUNAJALI project provided various interventions including medical care and psychological support with the purpose of improving the health status of people living with HIV/AIDS. The effect of home based care TUNAJALI services was the only predictor of health status of people living with HIV/AIDS that was measured as an improvement of CD4 count over time. The average CD4 count before, one year, two years of home based care, and during the study were: 193.86; 258.83 (25.1%); 375.72 (31.2%); 487.57 respectively. A positive relationship was observed between home based care services and well-being. The findings from the present study show that the home based care positively improved the well-being of HIV/AIDS patients in the studied population. Improved wellbeing also improved CD4 count in patients.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1091 View / Download Pdf

Marina G. Yefimova1,2 and Nicolas Bourmeyster1*

1Université de Poitiers/CNRS, Laboratoire Signalisation et Transports Ioniques Membranaires, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, F-86022 Poitiers, France
2Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 44 Maurice Thorez Prospekt, 194233 Saint Petersburg, Russia

 Myelinosomes are pleomorphic structures with huge diversity of form, specific hallmark of “lysosomal storage diseases”, but also present in other inborn errors of metabolism such as aggregation diseases HD and CF. In the original work “Myelinosomes act as natural secretory organelles to prevent accumulation of aggregate-prone mutant Huntingtin and CFTR” Yefimova et al., describe an unexpected role of myelinosomes as key regulators of proteostasis in the somatic Sertoli cells from the testis. By releasing myelinosomes loaded with undegraded misfolded proteins, Sertoli cells demonstrate a new aspect of protein quality control mechanism unrelated to catabolic degradation.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1085 View / Download Pdf

Ramy Sedhom1*, Daniel Sedhom1 and Roger Strair2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
2Division of Hematology and Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

 IgG4-related disease is a fibroinflammatory condition that mimics many malignant, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. Histopathology is key to diagnosis and is hallmarked by tumor like infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cells in tissues, with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis and oblierative phlebitis. Disease has been reported in virtually every organ system1-4. Though the underlying pathophysiology is still unclear, untreated disease ultimately leads to irreversible fibrosis. We describe the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and relevant features of IgG4-related disease and discuss current evidence regarding treatment.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1089 View / Download Pdf

Bryan A. Wilson1,2 and Monte S. Willis1,3*

1McAllister Heart Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA
2Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA
3Department of Pharmacology, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA

 The 8th annual Rare Disease Scientific Workshop featured presentations on the topic of “Evaluating Models to Provide Early Access for Rare Disease Patients”. The workshop included presentations from and participation by experts in Industry, the Food and Drug Administration, and academia focused on case study examples of successful mechanisms for those seeking to provide early access to experimental therapies for patients. Current regulatory frameworks were discussed and evaluated, with an emphasis on rare and serious diseases with the goal of identifying best practices and useful ideas for a set of standard approaches to early access.

Date: Tuesday, September 13, 2016, Washington, DC

Location: Willard Intercontinental Hotel, Washington DC

Sponsor: The EveryLife Foundation for Rare Diseases

AAV, adeno-associated virus; ALS, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; CURES, Compassionate Use Reform and Enhancements; DMD, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; ERT, enzyme replacement therapy; FDA, US Food and Drug Administration; GLPs, good laboratory practices; ICU, intensive care unit; IND, FDA’s Investigational New Drug program; H.R., House of Representatives; IRB, institutional review boards; J&J, Johnson and Johnson; JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association; MCT, Medium-chain triglyceride; MPS I, mucopolysaccharidosis I; MPS7, Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7; NYU, New York University; OHOP, Office of Hematology and Oncology Products; rhGUS, recombinant human beta-glucuronidase; RUF, Reagan-Udall Foundation; WT, WideTrial

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1095 View / Download Pdf

Breanna R Campbell, David Reynoso, and A Clinton White Jr*

Infectious Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA

 Neurocysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium, is a common cause of neurologic disease worldwide. Approximately 2,000 cases per year are diagnosed in the United States. Intraventricular neurocysticercosis is a severe form of the disease, in which cysticerci within the cerebral ventricles cause obstructive hydrocephalus. Symptoms of hydrocephalus include headache, nausea, vomiting, altered mental status, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. In some cases, sudden onset of symptoms are associated with changes in head position leading to acute obstruction (Bruns’ syndrome). Diagnosis depends on neuroimaging studies, especially 3 dimensional MRI sequences. Optimal treatment involves relief of hydrocephalus by removal of the cysticerci. For cysticerci in the lateral and third ventricles, this can usually be accomplished via minimally invasive surgery (neuroendoscopy). However, this is not possible with adherent cysticerci. In some cases of cysticerci in the 4th ventricle, open surgical microdissection via an occipital approach may be safer. Mortality is rare with appropriate management.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/2.1084 View / Download Pdf

Matshidiso Moeti*

WHO regional office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo

 This mini review on my previous article entitled, ‘Winning the battle against the scourge of poliomyelitis in the African Region’ published in Vaccine 34 (2016) 5142–5143 takes another look at the optimism expressed in that article about the success in eradicating poliomyelitis (Polio) from the African Region. Polio is a deadly and painful disease that afflicts mostly children less than 5 years. The struggle to eradicate it and get the African Region polio-free has been tortuous. The struggle has been protracted with a series of public health emergencies and political strife compromising the efforts of global partnership comprising of WHO and its key partners such as the United Nations Children’s Fund, the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Rotary International, and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, among others, as well as other stakeholders and national governments in the African Region. In a renewed effort, the partnership generated a huge amount of resources and skills deployed to interrupt polio transmission in the Region. For the first time since the struggle began in the early 80s, the Region reported no wild polio virus for two years. However, the recent success of the military campaign in Northeast Nigeria brought to the open the realities of reservoirs of transmission isolated in security compromised areas. Thus, after two years new cases of wild polio virus were reported in previously unreachable areas. The lesson here is in understanding the impact of political activities on the realization of health for all in our Region.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1090 View / Download Pdf

Paula G. Franco1,2, Ana M. Adamo1,2, Patricia Mathieu1,2, María J. Pérez1,2, Patricia C. Setton-Avruj1,2 and Lucas Silvestroff1,2*

1Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedra de Química Biológica Patológica. Buenos Aires, Argentina
2Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica

Biológicas (IQUIFIB) Profesor Alejandro C. Paladini, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Argentina

 Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD) are rare diseases that as a whole have a combined incidence ranging from 1:1500 to 1:7000 live births. One of such diseases is Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI), or Maroteaux Lamy Syndrome. MPS VI patients undergo devastating and irreversible skeletal alterations and multisystemic failure as from early childhood due to reduced Arylsulfatse B (ARSB) enzyme activity.

Reaching a final diagnosis is not always a short cut path, but rather a years-long battle against uncertainty and unnecessary medical interventions. Our aim is to contribute from the bench table with different approaches that could serve as alternatives to pre-existing assays for screening and diagnosing MPS VI and other LSD.

The present work is based on our research article authored by Franco et al.1 where we studied the effect of blood-derived hemoglobin, and other blood components, on the fluorescence of 4-Methylumbelliferone when measuring ARSB enzyme activity from dried blood spot (DBS) samples.

Our experience indicates that to date there are plenty of different approaches for measuring ARSB enzyme activity, although the sample type required or the assay in itself often make them more adaptable for either high throughput screening or small scale diagnostics.

As a whole, the fluorometric determinations seem to be the most accessible to low budget laboratories with equally valuable performances as a sophisticated mass spectrometry analysis for this disease. Furthermore, the DBS serves as an attractive sample type for screening the disease in large populations.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1081 View / Download Pdf

Tu-Anh Tran1*, Anne Filleron1, Mathieu Simonin2 and Pierre Corbeau3

1Department of Pediatrics, Nîmes University Hospital, INSERM U 1183, Montpellier-Nîmes University, Nîmes, France
2Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Pediatric Oncology, 114 Rue Paul Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France
3Department of Immunology, Nîmes university hospital, Montpellier-Nîmes university, Nîmes, France

 Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS), is a rare condition characterized by a recurrent stereotypical triad: hypovolemic shock, generalized edema, paradoxical hemoconcentration and hypoalbuminemia. It is caused by massive fluid extravasation into the interstitial space. Mortality may result from hemodynamic failure in the acute phase or cardiac failure due to reflex circulatory overload in the sub-acute phase. To date, twenty-one pediatric cases were reported in the literature. Sex ratio (M/F) was 0.32 with a median age at disease onset of 5.7 years and at diagnosis of 6 years. The disease was recurrent in 81% of patients with a median of three attacks. Severe complications were possible involving central nervous system (n=2) or rhabdomyolysis, with a compartment syndrome needing fasciotomy (n=5). The median time to clinical recovery was five days. Although the clinical manifestations of pediatric and adult SCLS were similar; in the opposite of adult SCLS, none of the children showed evidence of monoclonal gammopathy and three pediatric cases had a family history of SCLS. Seventy five percent of the patients were treated with prophylactic treatment (mainly immunoglobulins, theophylline plus verapamil). Several inflammatory cytokines were suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of SCLS, especially interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor -alpha.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1070 View / Download Pdf

Mira Sohn and Tamas Balla*

Section on Molecular Signal Transduction, Program for Developmental Neuroscience, Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA

 Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease presenting with complex physical and mental abnormalities. Whole exome sequencing performed on five LMS-affected individuals has identified gain-of-function mutations in the PTDSS1 gene encoding phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PSS1) enzyme. These mutations all rendered PSS1 insensitive to PS-mediated product inhibition. In a recent study we showed that uncontrolled PS production by these mutant PSS1 enzymes lead to the accumulation of PS in the ER where it is not detected in normal cells. This increased PS in the ER in turn, activated the Sac1 phosphatase, which is responsible for the dephosphorylation of the minor lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the ER. Increased Sac1 activity decreased PI4P levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane thereby dissipating the PI4P gradients set up by PI 4-kinase enzymes (PI4Ks) between these membranes and the ER. Such PI4P gradients at membrane contact sites have been shown to support the transports of structural lipids such as cholesterol and PS out of the ER by non-vesicular lipid transfer. Therefore, uncontrolled production of PS not only affects the PS status of cells but also initiates an avalanche of changes in the metabolism of other membrane lipids via affecting PI4P gradients throughout the cell. Recognition of the close metabolic interaction between PS synthesis and PI4P metabolism provided a new clue to better understand the molecular underpinning of this rare and severe disease.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1080 View / Download Pdf

Ryuichi Mashima1* and Torayuki Okuyama1,2

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan
2Center for Lysosomal Storage Disorders, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535, Japan

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1079 View / Download Pdf

Ayami Sato1,2, Nantiga Virgona2, Yuko Sekine1 and Tomohiro Yano2*

1Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
2Research Institute of Life Innovation, Toyo University, Gunma, Japan

 Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer associated with exposure to asbestos. In recent years, despite restrictions on the use of asbestos, the incidence of MM has been increasing due to its long latency period. Owing to its poor prognosis, the treatment of MM requires innovative therapies. Tocotrienol (T3), one of the vitamin E analogues, has powerful antioxidant properties and anti-cancer effects. However, these effects have not been fully understood, and are mediated independent of its antioxidant activity. Therefore, we have synthesized a new redox-inactive derivative of T3 (T3E) that has shown a stronger anti-MM effect than its redox-sensitive mother compound. In this review, we discuss the potential for anti-MM effect of T3E as non-antioxidant functions of T3 by introducing our previous reports.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1072 View / Download Pdf

Patsy Thrasher1, Mahipal Singh1 and Krishna Singh1,2*

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, James H Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA
2James H Quillen Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mountain Home, TN, USA

 Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutations in the ATM gene cause a rare autosomal multisystemic disease known as Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). Individuals with mutations in both copies of the ATM gene suffer from increased susceptibility to ionizing radiation, predisposition to cancer, insulin resistance, immune deficiency, and premature aging. Patients with one mutated allele make-up ~1.4 to 2% of the general population. These individuals are spared from most of the symptoms of the disease. However, they are predisposed to developing cancer or ischemic heart disease, and die 7-8 years earlier than the non-carriers. DNA double-strand breaks activate ATM, and active ATM is known to phosphorylate an extensive array of proteins involved in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The importance of ATM in the regulation of DNA damage response signaling is fairly well-established. This review summarizes the role of ATM in the heart, specifically in cardiac remodeling following β-adrenergic receptor stimulation and myocardial infarction.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1077 View / Download Pdf

Takeo Kato1*, Minako Ide1 and Masatoshi Nakata2

1Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki General Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan
2Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto Japan

 Infantile spasms (IS) is the most recognized epileptic encephalopathy in early infancy, resulting in poor cognitive outcome. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy is the first-line therapy for IS, but the relapse rate is high. Relapse after initial ACTH therapy is a poor prognostic factor for long-term seizure control and outcome of cognitive function. Recently, several studies have reported on the long-lasting maintenance of the positive effects produced by an initial course of ACTH by using long-term weekly ACTH therapy for relapsed IS. Here, we review the clinical characteristics of five previously reported cases. Epileptic spasms and hypsarrhythmia remained completely resolved during the extended ACTH therapy and did not recur after ACTH discontinuation in all cases. Furthermore, no cognitive or neurodevelopment deterioration was observed, and no serious adverse events occurred in any patient. In conclusion, this therapy appears safe and may lead to improved psychomotor development. We believe that it may be a good alternative therapy when frequent relapses occur after a favorable response to an initial course of conventional ACTH therapy. However, further studies are required to examine the risks and benefits of this therapy for relapsed IS in a large population and in countries in addition to Japan.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1068 View / Download Pdf

David Badrudin, Pierre Dubé and Lucas Sideris*

Maisonneuve-Rosemont Research Center, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada

 Background: Cytoreductive surgery combined to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the standard of care for selected patients with peritoneal surface malignancies. Preclinical studies, especially when performed on animal models, provide a framework for improvement of this treatment. This study aims to present an overview of a single institution's experience in this setting.

Methods/Results: Review of all preclinical studies from a single center was conducted using PubMed and author databases. Multiple experiments were conducted using pig and rat models. These studies examined the impact of different surgical techniques, such as the electrovaporization of tumor nodules and the use of different suture material, in the context of HIPEC. The pharmacokinetics of multiple intraperitoneal cytotoxic agents – namely oxaliplatin, raltitrexed, irinotecan and pemetrexed – were also studied.

Conclusion: Experimental studies help guide future directions for the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1064 View / Download Pdf

Di-Fei Lu, and Xiao-Hui Guo*

Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China

 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent female endocrine and metabolic disorder, and is typically presented with menstrual irregularity and an excess of androgen production. Obesity is a common comorbidity with PCOS, and accompanying insulin resistance is proved to be a key pathogenesis of PCOS. Several parameters have been applied to evaluate obesity, including body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat (PBF) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index. Accumulating studies were conducted to analyze the association between the markers of obesity and PCOS, as well as the cut-off level of each marker in order to detect higher risk of cardiovascular diseases or rule out metabolic syndrome. However, standards of obesity parameters to screen or diagnose PCOS are yet to be established. Herein we briefly review the association of obesity measuring methods and its diagnostic value with PCOS, which gives insight into the development of standard criteria for obesity in PCOS.

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1078 View / Download Pdf

Michael Y. Soliman, Rima El-Abassi* and John D. England

Department of Neurology, South East Louisiana Veteran Health Care Sysytem (SELVHCS), Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70112, United States

DOI: 10.29245/2572-9411/2017/1.1062 View / Download Pdf